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Electric Vehicle Alert for Detection and Emergency Response (eVADER)

Contract number: 285095
Funding scheme: Collaborative Project
Funding: 1.8 MEur

Recent studies suggest that vehicles, driven in electric mode, either hybrid or pure electric vehicles, are considerably quiet and, thus, that they constitute a safety hazard for pedestrians and bicyclists in traffic. It is claimed that such vehicles are not acoustically perceived due to the power unit being exchanged from a combustion engine to electric motors; something that essentially cuts away all power unit noise and leaves tyre/road noise, the latter of which is the same as for similar-sized vehicles with combustion engines. Actions have been taken by the US and Japanese governments as well as within international bodies such as UN/ECE and ISO, with the expected outcome that "minimum noise" of vehicles shall be measured with a standard method and legal limit values for such "minimum noise" shall be established.

Recent findings reported in NHTSA Technical Report (September 2009) suggest that pedestrian and cyclist crashes involving both electric vehicle (EV) and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) driven vehicles commonly occurred on roadways, in zones with low speed , with higher incidence rates for EV and Hybrid EV (HEV) or EV when compared with internal combustion driven vehicles (ICE). The study showed that for vehicles moving slowly or stopping, backing up or entering or leaving a parking place the HEV was about two times more likely to be involved in a pedestrian accident than ICE vehicles. Similar trend was also found for cyclists, particularly at intersections. Accordingly, special concern is given to noise at speeds below 20 km/h for which the problem is expected be the worst and where not enough data is available.

LDV new vehicle sales

A significant growing in the EV sales is expected

eVADER will investigate the interior and exterior sound scape of electric vehicle for safe operation, considering driver’s feedback, feasible pedestrian reactions, driver and pedestrian warning systems and pedestrian safety. eVADER will also analyse innovative methods to improve the acoustic detectatibility of electric vehicles in urban scenarios. eVADER will define solutions to warn vulnerable users of a nearby moving vehicle while providing means for heightening the awareness of drivers in critical situations.

Among other’s some of the most important areas covered by eVADER will be:

  • Optimum warning signals definition to induce correct driver reaction for safe operation
  • Adaptation of the warning signals to the real in-service vibro-acoustic environment
  • Optimum warning signals definition for pedestrians in close-to-accident situations
  • Adaptation of the warning signals to real urban and exterior noise
  • Integration of the generation of acoustic warning signals with in-vehicle intelligent systems data such as external microphones, vehicle speed (CAN) or ADAS (Advance Driver Assistance) systems.
  • Use of in-vehicle complementary information to improve directivity, timing, intensity, modulation and frequency characteristics of the warning signal, depending on real close-to accident scenario
  • Optimum warning signals maintaining the quietness of residents

Project Innovations


noise input

Jury tests and IVSS testing


Example:
IVSS Pedestrian maniquin instrumentation for acoustic detection
Recording of warning activation in real close-to-accident conditions (Driver & pedestrian)

 

Optimal warning signal

  • Directivity patterns around the vehicle (interior and exterior spatial distribution)
  • Detection thresholds in real driving conditions (drivers) and urban noise environment (pedestrians)
  • Time structure of warning signals
  • Frequency characteristics of warning signals
  • Psychological effects of warning signals on drivers and pedestrians
  • Physical devices for warning signal generation (electrodynamic, piezoelectric, etc)

Beam of sound warning signal

 

Warning singal performance v.s. acoustic landscape

  • The development of an noise signal generator with high spatial directivity will allow the development of
    integrating control algorithms that will integrate in-vehicle intelligent systems data with the exterior warning
    signal for pedestrian selection in any close-to-accident situation
  • Thus, increase of unwanted vehicle noise affecting pedestrians not involved in the danger situation will be avoided
  • The thresholds for warning signal detection will be determined as a function of background noise perceived by the
    pedestrian

Protection reaction

Integration between IVSS, environment information and acoustic warning signal

 

Integration IVSS